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Nadugala et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, Advance PRM 13I E0 reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Predicted epitopes, 32 and 17 for E and prM proteins, respectively, were then characterized for their level of conservations.

These epitopes indicate a potential Advance PRM 13I E0 as universal vaccine candidates, subjected to verification of their potential in viral neutralization. Previous studies further show evidence for some of these epitopes to generate cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies, indicating their importance in antiviral strategies for DENV. This study suggests that bioinformatic approaches are attractive first line of screening for identification of linear B-cell epitopes. Introduction Dengue is a mosquito-borne systemic viral infection caused by any of the four antigenically related dengue viruses DENV.

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An estimated million people worldwide are infected with dengue annually, leading to approximately million cases of dengue and 21, deaths [ 1 ]. The single open reading frame encodes a polyprotein precursor, which is cleaved by cellular and viral proteases into three structural proteins, capsid Cprecursor membrane prMand envelope Eand seven nonstructural proteins [ 4 ]. The E protein participates in cell recognition and cell entry and is physically arranged in a herringbone pattern as a series of 90 homodimers on the outer surface of the mature virus particle [ 5 ]. The prM protein has been shown to serve as a chaperon of E protein [ 910 ] and to prevent E protein from Advance PRM 13I E0 fusion within acidic compartments along the secretary pathway [ 1112 ].

On immature particles, the prM protein lies over the E protein and serves to protect the virus particle from undergoing premature fusion or inactivation within the secretary pathway of the host cell. The prM is subsequently cleaved by a host protease to release the ectodomain and allow viral maturation [ 13 ].

Advances in Bioinformatics

As shown in previous studies, B-cell responses are known to be directed against the viral structural proteins E and prM of DENV [ 14 — 19 ], which are fundamental in the pathogenesis of virus infection. B-cell epitopes of those proteins are therefore targets in the development of effective therapeutic and diagnostic tools Advance PRM 13I E0 20 ].

Traditional epitope selection methods are usually cumbersome and require large resources. However, the advent of technologies related to immune epitope prediction and databases could aid the prediction of B-cell epitopes.

Sophisticated bioinformatic tools enable the systematic scanning for candidate epitopes from large sets of protein antigens. This approach saves considerable time and cost, especially for researchers in countries with limited resources [ 21 ].

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Advance PRM 13I E0, we focused on prediction of linear B-cell epitopes, as they are more applicable in the development of peptide based vaccines and diagnostic tools [ 22 ]. As predicted and analyzed in this study, seven epitopes on the E protein demonstrated the potentiality to be used as serotype Advance PRM 13I E0 diagnostic markers. Several epitopes on the E protein and prM proteins were having high dengue group conservancies and located in positions with previous evidence for generating NAbs and therefore indicate a potential use of them in antiviral strategies or in developing as dengue group diagnostic markers.

Materials and Methods 2. Each serotype consisted of fifty sequences each for both E and prM protein. The retrieved data set is representative of a wide geographical coverage countries from South Asia, East Asia, America, and Africa, where dengue is prevalent and a time span of approximately 50 years isolates from to Isolates with partial sequences in NCBI were excluded. The variable and conserved regions were compared among the Advance PRM 13I E0 isolates after aligning the isolates using Clustal W on MEGA6 http: Selection of Prediction Tools B-cell epitope prediction was carried out by use of tools available online. These tools were primarily selected on their free accessibility and on epitope prediction characteristics used in the prediction tool.

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  • Supporting Information

BepiPred [ 23 ] http: This method assigns a score value to each protein residue. The second tool selected, Ellipro [ 25 ] derived from Ellipsoid and Protrusion http: The following values were selected for Ellipro parameters for prediction of epitopes: The length of predicted epitopes was retained to 20 a. The lowest score of the recommended epitopes by the tool, which was 0. In summary the three tools described above Advance PRM 13I E0 different models like Hidden Advance PRM 13I E0 model and Support Vector Machine model, among others, and consider different amino acid propensities such as hydrophilicity, flexibility, and secondary structure for prediction of B-cell epitopes.

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Therefore, simultaneous applications of three bioinformatics tools will enable a comprehensive prediction of B-cell epitopes. The two viral envelope proteins, prM/M and E, have been used as major targets for vaccine development against ZIKV infections [13], since they are the main. Table 1 Statistical features at Advance PRM 13I E0 (e) = 0 S.N.

Mean (m) RMS (m) Variance (m2) Std. deviation (m) Skewness 1 −E E E E


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