Sexual mosaics induced by tetracycline treatment in the Wolbachia -infected adzuki bean borer, Ostrinia scapulalis. Under this assumption that mothers only mate once, sisters are more strongly related to each other than to their own daughters.
Similarly, feminization occurs in arthropods having a ZW-ZZ system butterflies, woodlice and shrimpsXX-X0 system leafhoppers and haplodiploid system mayfliesand the causal agents of feminization also include bacteria and eukaryotes.
Haplodiploidy determines the sex in all members of the insect orders Hymenoptera beesantsand wasps  and Thysanoptera 'thrips'. Sex determination of the amphipod crustacean Gammarus duebeni Amphipoda; Gammaridae is more complex compared with that of insects.
Population dynamics under parasitic sex ratio distortion. Relevant PhysicsForums posts Any studies looking for a quantum bump in human photoreceptors? Although less conspicuous than the case of the mayfly, perturbation of haplo diploid sex determination in Manitoba development of secondary sexual characters by endosymbionts or parasites has also been found in various insects [ 5455 ], in which the adaptive role of feminization remains unclear.
It is also known that Wolbachia rescues the oogenesis defect in a Sex-lethal mutant of D. Incidence of male-killing Rickettsia spp. Spiroplasma poulsonii sp. Male production induced by antibiotic treatment in Encarsia formosa Hymenoptera: Aphelinidaean asexual species. Thelohania californica n.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Bandi C.
Sakamoto H. In wasps such as Trichogramma species and Leptopilina clavipes , meiosis is normal, but during the first mitotic division, the chromosomes fail to segregate in metaphase, resulting in diploidization of the nucleus [ 93 , 94 ]. Due to the separate storage of drone sperm, a specific batch of brood may be more closely related than a specific batch of brood laid at a later date.
Conclusions The accumulating data demonstrate that a variety of sexual aberrations in arthropods is imposed by endosymbionts e.