Confidentiality also is subject to practical limits, including the possibility that partners might guess the identity of the index patient at any point during the process. In these situations, managers of both programs should establish policies and procedures to ensure that persons with a diagnosis of HIV infection, syphilis, gonorrhea, or chlamydial infection by either program receive appropriate partner services.
We also cannot rule out non-response bias or violation of the assumption of random recruitment within subgroups of social networks. For most STDs, data from a physician survey suggest that although physicians might be reluctant to collect partner services data hiv among sex workers in thailand in Devon, they are willing to report cases to health departments to ensure that their patients receive partner services Certain evidence indicates that health department specialists might elicit more partner names from index patients with gonorrhea or chlamydial infection than other, presumably untrained, interviewers However, prioritizing certain partners for the most immediate notification is appropriate.
At 3 and hiv among sex workers in thailand in Devon months, participants receiving either of the two counseling interventions reported significantly higher levels of condom use than those receiving only didactic information.
Criteria for prioritizing index patients vary somewhat according to the infection involved. All index patients likely can benefit from receiving information and brief prevention messages about hiv among sex workers in thailand in Devon and maintaining safer behaviors to protect their own health and that of their partners 25 Persons using assistive technology might not be able to fully access information in this file.
For certain patients, recent infection might be suggested by a clear history of an acute retroviral syndrome, which might result in the interview period being shortened for these specific patients
When a person agrees to disclose private information, especially in the context of a service aimed at helping others, such information should be held in strict confidence, both because of its private nature and as a sign of respect for the person who is volunteering to share the information.
DISs generally must avoid disclosing the name of an index patient. Although health department program managers are the primary intended audience, information in this report might be beneficial for HIV-prevention community planning groups, STD program advisory bodies, trainers and providers of technical assistance, community-based organizations CBOsclinical care providers, and others with an interest in partner services.
A critical function of partner services is partner notification, a process through hiv among sex workers in thailand in Devon infected persons are interviewed to elicit information about their partners, who can then be confidentially notified of their possible exposure or potential risk.
Sampling hard to reach and hidden populations for HIV surveillance.
These persons, referred to as social contacts and referred to as suspects in previous guidelines , might include persons with symptoms suggestive of disease, partners of other persons known to be infected, or others who might benefit from examination e. Although other models might be used, the goal of partner services is to maximize the number of partners who are notified of their exposure to HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, or chlamydia and who are treated or linked to medical, prevention, and other services.
Public health clinics provide a safer environment for partner services staff members and a more confidential setting for interviewing and counseling than field settings. In addition, an extensive review was conducted to identify relevant published research.
The following categories of persons are considered high-priority index patients for partner services, regardless of the infection involved:. The potential for violence initiated either by a partner or by an index patient during the process of partner notification is an important concern.