An applicant must show that they have a fear of persecution for holding such opinions. You can find more information about FGM hereand more information about smuggling and trafficking here. Sexual violence in particular carries traumatic social repercussions for both women and men that may be affected by their cultural origins or social status.
Equally the refusal of men to grow a beard or dress accordingly to social norms may be interpreted as meaning that men hold a particular political opinion. In addition to the information below, please also see the e-learning guide available at www.
Looking more specifically at the trafficking of menIOM produced a report on the less considered experiences of trafficked men from Belarus and Ukraine. Gender-specific forms of persecution include, but are not limited to: Marriage-related harm; Violence within the family or community; Domestic slavery; Forced abortion; Forced sterilisation; Trafficking; Female genital mutilation; Sexual violence and abuse and other sex than male and female in Crawley.
Middleton, J. There is evidence that these women are sometimes unable to benefit equitably from protection under the Refugee Convention. Examples of such discrimination, some of which can be seen more often to affect women, include:.
For example, women who have been raped are frequently considered to be adulterous. The Hastings Centre on Gender and Refugee Studies contains a range of guidelines and case law and other related material on gender-related persecution and women refugees including information on gender issues in countries from which women come.
Importantly, and regardless of who is making the asylum claim, a gendered approach focuses not on individual women and men but on the system which determines gender roles and responsibilities, access to and control over resources, and decision-making potentials.
There are many forms of harm that are only or more frequently used against women that may constitute serious harm and, if combined with a failure of state protection, rise to the level of persecution. In many parts of the world, women who do not live up to the moral or ethical standards imposed on them by their societies are imputed with a political opinion and as a consequence suffer cruel or inhuman treatment.
Cultural and other differences and trauma can play an important role in determining demeanour i. Sexual violence in particular carries traumatic social repercussions for both women and men that may be affected by their cultural origins or social status. See article by Nathalia Berkowitz.